Homeowners insurance explained

Homeowners insurance explained


After years of hope, months of research, you have found your first new home and finally, happy to enjoy it. At some point, you are facing the decision of having an insurance policy, probably because you heard to do so. Well, they are right! This is not certainly like taking a vacation, but you must have some knowledge about it.

Many people get confused and lost in front of the big load of information, that doesn’t mean you should skip it or taking shallow choices. Living in safety feels good, but you won’t spend useless energy worrying, and rather dedicate to what most you like in life.

Here is the explanation of the most important things about homeowners insurance, just sit down, take some minutes, and have a good read.

What actually homeowners insurance does?

As with cars, the main purpose of buying insurance is to keep yourself financially safe in case you will suffer a loss or any damage, and protecting your house is obviously a big concern.

Home insurance consists of a policy comprehensive of a series of coverages, that will be used for recovering damages to the building and properties due to natural events, and for any kind of liability for injuries and property damage that you and your family members may cause to other people.

Let’s assume that your kids catch a fire, a thunder or a pile of snow strikes the roof, undermining or even destroying the structure: who would pay for this? You, of course, but would that mean you will have to re-buy or refurbish the house, directly out-of-your pocket? That is when insurance comes along. You make an economic deal with the company today, so to make sure that it will take the burden of a major, uncertain loss in the future: pay fairly little now, to be protected big tomorrow: that’s the logic.

There are some conditions, such as closing the mortgage contract, or lawsuits, where you will be called to have some kind of insurance on the house. In the situations of everyday life, you should carry, for instance, liability insurance, just think about driving cars: in the eventuality that you might provoke an accident, you are called to indemnify harms underwent by other people.

In 2019, roughly 95% of American had homeowners insurance; however, about 60% were underinsured, according to U.S. Census Bureau; otherwise said, almost two in three of them don’t clearly understand how coverages work, therefore buying lower levels of protection, or staying unprotected towards some perils, in the mistaken belief their policy is already covering them. Too bad, because in these last decades and years, due also to the great climatic changes, the risk linked to natural events is drastically increased, especially in some geographical areas as the coastal ones, where hurricanes and big floodings are most likely. Besides, according to recent data gathered by the Insurance Information Institute, most claims are made for theft.

That said, it is strongly advised and common sense that you have insurance on your home. Also, let’s consider minor damages: you will face not only the loss in itself but also the costs of the repair process. You could find yourself in periods of unexpected financial troubles. So, being insured for the peace of mind of you and your beloved is indeed an excellent decision. You will need to be covered for something essential, while other things come with an extra cost and would mean a further layer of safety.


What are the coverages you will find written in your insurance policy?


Adequate levels of coverage are what buying insurance is all about. You buy a policy aiming to be fully insured, not just partially because home expenses are in the order of three to five figures!

There are different kinds of insurance coverage: typically, a standard policy, the HO-3 includes protection against perils like theft, fire, wind, hail, and others, 16 in total. Any damage must be acute and inadvertent, otherwise, say for a chronic leak, it won’t be suitable to be covered; in the paperwork, you will see a list of the covered perils, for which you may need to file a claim in the future. Whenever an accident occurs, you must know if it’s a covered loss you are going to face.

Some disasters are not included, but require additional separate policies, or come in the form of endorsements: flooding insurance, earthquake coverage, sinkholes, acts of war. Be carefully informed if these events are likely to happen in your area; while it is not certainly pleasant to think about such things, you still don’t have to underestimate the possibility.

The most important portion of the insurance package is dwelling coverage: it refers to your home as a building. Usually, you find it under the ‘Coverage A’ in a typical policy form, and can be estimated in three ways:

– Actual cash value (ACV): repays the house with its current market value adjusted for the depreciation. This is the most basic level of protection, and in some cases can be a more viable option.

– Replacement cost: corresponds to how much would be for rebuilding a home or repairing destroyed portions of it. This is generally more recommended than ACV. The value of the land on which the house lies is not taken into account.

– Guaranteed/Extended Replacement Cost: a guaranteed policy reimburses a sum to rebuild the house as it was before the damaging event whatever the costs, even exceeding the policy caps. An extended coverage does the same: your house will be repaid to be rebuilt up to a fixed extra of 20-25% upon the existing limit of the policy. Not every insurance company grants this last option, and when choosing it your annual premium will be higher, the price for wider protection.

The ACV would mean either over-insuring or under-insuring your home, that is to say, paying more or less than needed. That’s why you may prefer to calculate in advance how would it cost to rebuild your house: with online tools, and when requesting a quote to a insurance online provider, you are usually asked the ZIP code of your area, so that the estimation can be done. Instead, insurance companies today offer the second option, the right compromise on the practical side.

Dwelling coverage comprehends protection for home wiring, plumbing system, heating, and cooling apparatus. However, the cost of the land is excluded.

Garage and outside detached structures, like sheds and fences are indicated as ‘Other properties/structures coverage’(Coverage B) in your policy form and are generally included for 10% of the dwelling coverage.

Not every house is the same. If you have a home-based business, a place where people come as customers, then this building is not covered on a basic level but requires a commercial policy instead (that will take care also of liability entailed). Since there are extreme situations here, consider how this is regulated in your State and region. Another condition of non-coverage would be the contingency where you leave the house for an extended period (usually with the lower limit as 60 days): the risk of undergoing a hazard, for instance, a theft, is considered higher. Thus the standard policy would not reimburse you if an event occurred in this period; the same concept applies if you own a house where you don’t live consistently, let’s say a vacation property or a second home.

You should know that your form may have a co-insurance clause. That is to prevent you from buying a lower than needed coverage: if you did, coinsurance applies, and then you are called to pay the remainder of the payout for damage. So, in your attempt to save on the policy, you’ll be covered only for a sub-total (typically 80%) of home replacement cost, the other 20% being at your charge.

You also want to ensure the assets that are within the house, namely the personal property coverage. This is typically estimated on 40-70% of the home coverage; it is referred to as ‘coverage C’ in the policy paperwork. It protects your furniture, appliances, electronic devices, clothes, personal items: it is suggested that you take an inventory of what precious there is within your walls. ACV or replacement cost also applies to personal properties: respectively, the asset damaged can be bought again for its current value (that will be depreciated) or for the price of a new model; this last option is still better, in the opinion of most financial experts.

If you have any high-value jewelry and/or pieces of art, then the standard coverage won’t apply to their full value. You are advised to buy extra coverage, that is an endorsement or dedicated policy, namely a floater. Without it, there will be only preset amounts to pay out the losses. All the objects are covered against perils like theft, fire, thunders, bursts, acts of vandalism, and riot, but excluded for wind-related events.

Next comes the coverage for additional living expenses: this is also known as ‘loss of use’ (Coverage D). If you are forced to live outside the home because of a major loss, or big repairments that have to be made, then you will need to be supported for the costs of lodging, eating, keeping your clothes clean, storing your worthy objects, moving, etc., for the whole time. Most insurance companies agree to set the amount of this coverage to 20% of the dwelling, and its length period can be priorly specified.

The above components make part of ‘Section I’ of the policy.

The ‘Section II’ consists of liability coverages (Coverage E-F): these compensate other people injured (visitors, family friends) within and in the context of your property (including gardens, swimming pools, garages, etc.); they cover you both for being sued and legal expenses due to attorneys. ‘E’ is specifically also referred to as personal liability coverage, the main component of liability with the bigger limits. Perils for which you’re liable include dog bytes and harms from any pet; it also comes into play when you cause some damage to another’s house. In any case, demonstrating it wasn’t your fault will be somehow tricky and crucial. A smaller portion of the liability is guest medical coverage/medical payment to others (cov. F): it pays for their medical expenses, independently of whom is the fault of the accident. Its limits are relatively low: typically you can choose a $1,000 or $5,000 coverage, in fact, it is addressed to minor claims.

Personal liability coverage limits generally start at $100,000, while in most cases would be necessary and recommended to opt for a $300,000 cap.; homeowners with assets may better choose a $500,000 limit instead.

An umbrella or excess liability policy provides coverage over $1 million, including the perils of libel and slander. These amounts can be easily reached to cover legal costs, and, as with basic liability, can be also aimed to reimburse lost wages of people injured: at major reason if more than one individual is involved, for instance, an accident during a party or meeting.

Some people skip the liability coverage (in the attempt to get a lower insurance premium), harming themselves: if the neighbors’ sons fell off the stairs or stumble upon a bad positioned step that is in your house, they will be liable. The difference between, say one hundred vs three hundred dollars of liability will be minimum on the cost of a policy, while so many things can happen!

Last but not least, you have to choose deductibles amounts.


What are deductibles?


They are money you would pay if any damage occurred before the insurance premium comes into play: generally, range from $500 (sometimes $250) to $2500, but can go higher to $8000 and beyond, depending on situations. Simply stated, if you are insured for $20,000 from damage that occurred to your house, and you arranged a one-thousand deductible, then the company pays $19,000, and the remainder $1,000 is at your charge.

These are amount-based deductibles, which you commonly find in homeowners’ policies; in some cases, according to your State regulation, they can be offered as percentages of the coverage to which are applied. Anyway, deductibles are based on a risk tolerance concept: the lower the amount of deductible, the higher the cost of the policy. If you choose a low amount, that means you are bearing a low risk by paying less for future damage occurring, while you prefer to spend more today for the policy, and vice-versa. You will have deductibles on coverages A, B, and C, but the most critical to choose are the ones on the dwelling coverage.

Premiums vary by State. Today you can shop around and have a lot of options about purchasing your policy: you want to find a home insurance company that offers you the best service for the most comfortable price.

The process involves first getting a quote, but this can have you being flooded with emails from the insurance agency in the next days. With this tool, you can be confident about getting an idea of how much your policy will be, then you decide if proceeding with quotes and purchasing.


How much is homeowners insurance?


In the first quarter of 2020, the average annual premium nationwide is $1,419, according to our extensive data research*, with a substantial increase of 14% compared to the previous year. The State with the lowest average of $673 per year in Vermont, while the costliest is Oklahoma with a premium of $2,676.

Also within the same State, premiums change noticeably according to frequency and severity of claims made in the region and neighborhood, the precise location of your home, and its replacement cost, among the main factors.

While the argument may not be exciting, you must be aware of what your homeowner insurance policy covers, and what doesn’t. Next, be sure to take correct amounts of coverage, not just the minimum, for the sake of saving. You will eventually pay harder in the future.

*For each State, we got quotes from major companies for at least ten cities with the most density of population, then took the average of them. Premiums refer to proper coverage for the median home value in that State.